Professor of the International Black Sea University.
Director of the Center for International Studies
Invited Professor of the European University
Invited Professor of the Caucasus International University
President of the George C. Marshall Alumni Union, Georgia – International and Security Research Center
As it is known, during the last period, there has been constant speculation about the source of coronavirus origin. Different countries blame each other for the virus spreading. In addition, there is a scandalous version that the virus was artificially created in the form of biological weapons in the laboratory of Wuhan in China.
It is important to note that the Wuhan Institute of Virology opened in 2015 (Cyranoski, 2017). The laboratory has been assigned the highest level of security, or the fourth level. In this regard it is important to point out, that the fourth level of laboratories in the world are represented by a very small number. According to various theories, experiments in this laboratory were carried out with the most dangerous microorganisms that could cause deadly diseases (Ebola and others).
According to media reports from the several countries, during the conducting research at the Wuhan Institute in 2018, and the heads of this institute proudly claimed, that they have investigated the immune mechanism of bats. Bats could have been carriers of the virus for a long time, and at that time they themselves were not infected with the virus. Thus, the Wuhan Institute hoped that the virus-carrying bats would allow people to learn how to fight against viruses (Lolashvili, 2020).
It should be pointed out, that the French virologist Luke Montagne, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 2008 for his discovery of HIV, said that the new type of coronavirus had not have the natural origin of COVID-19 and has been created in a laboratory with added HIV particles.
The professor does not share the view that the virus emerged as a result of pollution in the Wuhan market. According to him, Wuhan's laboratory has been specializing in coronaviruses since 2000 and he has extensive experience in this field. In addition, the Nobel laureate said that he had analyzed the issue with his math colleague, Jean-Claude Perez.
"We have come to the conclusion that this virus has been manipulated. This is the work of molecular biologists," Montagne said in an interview with CNEws (Xinhuanet, 2020).
The Nobel Laureate says COVID-19 added HIV particles. "For what purpose? It's vague. My job is to present the facts and I don't blame anyone. I don't know who did it and why. Maybe they wanted to create a vaccine against AIDS," Montagne said.
Luke Montagne is a French virologist, a knight of the Legion of Honor and a Nobel laureate. He received an award in medicine and physiology in 2008 and was awarded with Harald Zur Hausen and Francoise Barre-Sinus. Together with Barre-Sinus, Montana discovered the human immunodeficiency virus in 1983 (Xinhuanet, 2020).
Earlier, Fox News reported that, according to Chinese authorities, the first patient who was diagnosed with a new type of coronavirus was not a market worker, but he worked in a laboratory at the Wuhan Institute of Virology.
Coronavirus and information war between the states
The debate about the possible artificial creation of coronaviruses is still ongoing. Several opinions were presented in March this year. In particular, a former senior Israeli military intelligence analyst, Dan Shohanma, in an interview with The Washington Times, said there was an attempt to produce biological weapons in a Wuhan laboratory, which in turn represents one of the leading research institutes. in the world (Washington Times, 2020).
Also noteworthy is the fact that back in 2019, the US State Department expressed doubts about the ongoing secret programs and experiments in this country related to the creation of biological weapons. China denies the allegations in an official statement that said: "Similar, unfounded allegations of China’s foreign intelligence service have been made several times." At the same time, several experts come to the conclusion that the leak of the new virus from the Wuhan laboratory occurred during the corresponding experiments in this scientific center.
While China denied possessing any aggressive biological weapons, in the U.S. Department of State report for 2019 was mentioned about Washington's suspicions that China was conducting a hidden biological war (US State Department Report, 2020).
In response, in China leaked via the Internet information that the virus is part of a US conspiracy to use biological weapons against China.
While the countries were involved in recriminations of each other, in early March of this year, the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs accused the U.S. Army in the spreading of epidemic on the territory of China. In particular, Zhao Lijian, deputy Director general of the Information Department of the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, wrote in his Twitter that the United States should present the concrete explanations and transfer its data to be more transparent.
"When did the infection begin in the United States?" How many people are infected? What are the names of hospitals? It is possible that the US Army has introduced an epidemic in Wuhan. Be transparent, make your data publicly available, ”wrote Zhao Lizziani (QUARTZ, 2020).
For other media outlets, such as Political Trends, China seeks to relieve itself of responsibility for the pandemic.
Other source of information, more precisely misinformation has been been spread by the Russian media, according to which the Coronavirus is a special weapon created by the United States to destroy China and Russia.
Military expert Igor Nikulin calls the spread of the virus a sabotage and develops several versions: Americans are trying to destroy the Chinese from within; Coronavirus may be artificially created; The proliferation of coronavirus is in the interest of American pharmaceutical companies; The spread of coronavirus is in America's interest, as American laboratories operate not only around Russia, but also in Asian countries (For.Ge, 2020).
Interestingly, at the end of April, Russia, through the puppet regime in the Tskhinvali region (formerly the South Ossetian Autonomous Region), issued another disinformation regarding the US laboratory in Georgia.
In particular, the so-called South Ossetian Security Service Application calls that "the residents of the Republic of South Ossetia should not take into attention the Georgian side`s suggetions to participate at any type of medical research." The main reason is the "area of Lugar Laboratory biological activity, which creates the preconditions for the deliberate infection of the residents of South Ossetia by Coronavirus.
It further underscores the fact that, according to the State Security Service, American and Georgian specialists are working to create and modify the spread of dangerous diseases, including those for military purposes" (Sputnik, 2020).
Later, the Chinese media, in particular the Chinese Global Times, blamed Russia for the spread of COVID-2019on the territory of China. In particular, the Chinese edition noted that Russia became the main source of COVID-2019 entry into China, when 309 Chinese citizens were diagnosed with the disease as soon as they returned from Russia.
Later, however, the media reported that Russia and China were working together to condemn "dangerous" American laboratories which are operating in the former Soviet republics.
China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs organized a regular press briefing, where spokesman of the ministry said that Beijing is concerned with the functioning on the territories of the former Soviet republics American research laboratories and supports the allegations of the Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman, Maria Zakharova (TASS, 2020).
It is possible to assume that the statements made by Russia and China are related to the statements of US President Donald Trump and Secretary of State Mike Pompeo that it is necessary to study the activities of the Wuhan Institute of Virology, which may have been one of the sources of coronavirus (Chitadze, 2020).
How credible is conspiracy theory about COVID 19 taking into consideration the foreign policy and foreign economic priorities of the leading countries of the World?
Against the backdrop of accusations leveled against each other by the world's leading states about Coronavirus, it is possible to analyze how much it is possible for this or other country in the world, including leading geopolitical players, to be interested in spreading the virus.
In the epidemic spread would not have been interested China, from where the virus has been widespread, taking into consideration that the within the last years the rapid development of China's economy was provided. Its GDP is 14 trillion USD and China is coming to the world stage with the strengthening its geopolitical position first of all by the taking the appropriate economic measures. For example, this country is the first exporter in the world and in 2019 China exported to the international market the products for $ 2 trillion 494 million (12% of world exports), which is about 1.5 times higher than export potential of its main competitor in the world economy - United States of America. However, due to coronavirus - in the first quarter of 2020, the volume of the Chinese main economic lever - export, has decreased by 13.3% (Trading Economics, 2020). It will lead to the economic stagnation in this country (as well as around the world). Therefore, it is impossible not to consider official Beijing would not take into account the consequences of the spread of the virus from this country to different regions of the world.
In addition, the spread of coronavirus has significantly shaken the international reputation of China as a country - that spreads coronavirus. It is known that several states are also demanding the imposition of economic sanctions against China. It is also important to note that many transnational companies are already trying to withdraw their capital from China, which will significantly reduce the volume of investment in the Chinese economy (previously annually about $ 40 billion were invested in the different sectors of Chinese economy). All the above will lead to economic stagnation in this country (as well as around the world). Naturally, therefore, it is impossible not to consider that official Beijing could not to predict the consequences of the spread of the virus from this country to different regions of the world.
As for the possible spread of Coronavirus by the United States and, first of all, its import into China, this position also excludes the real picture. In particular, despite the geopolitical and ideological rivalry and the problems in the trade-economic relations between the United States and China within the last two years, new agreements were signed in October-December 2019, according to which important steps were taken to remove the trade barriers. Trade turnover between the US and China in 2018 was estimated at $ 737 billion, while the volume of US direct investment in the Chinese economy ranged to about $100 billion (Office of the United States Trade Representative, 2019).
Of course, the relevant US state agencies would also be able to calculate the consequences of COVID 19 spreading taking into consideration the volume of the trade between the United States and China. Therefore, the US was aware of the fact that due to the spread of the virus in China, it would primarily affected the US, where as of April 27, 2020, 987, 322 thousand people were infected with coronavirus and the total number of deaths was 55, 415 thousand people. As for jobs, the number of unemployed in the United States has risen by about 300,000 as a result of the virus (Wordometers, 2020). In addition, experts estimate that by 2020, the U.S. economy will shrink by about 3%. In addition, COVID 19 negatively reflected on the income of US Companies. For example, only in March 2020, Dow Jones Index fell for about 26% (Chitadze, 2020).
Justice requires to mention, that Russia also would not be interested in the spread of coronavirus. Of course, this country can be blamed in many issues, including how the Russia occupied the territories of the neighboring countries, spreading various types of disinformation around the world, including the possibility of artificially spreading the Coronavirus by the west, about which has already been mentioned before.
But with regard to the artificially spreading of COVID 19 by Russia, there is a low probability that the Kremlin was interested in the Coronaviruses pandemic, first of all because of the fact, that Russian political elite understood, that new pandemic could cause the new World Economic crisis, which from its turn could decrease the demand on the energy products, first of all oil and gas. As it is know, Russia represents one of the main oil and producer and exporter in the World. For example, about 35% of the income part of the Russian budget is depended on the profit from the oil export.
In this regard, it is important to note that as a result of the coronavirus, oil prices per barrel within the first quarter of 2020 reduced by more than 60%, from $ 65 per barrel in 2019 till to $ 20 in April 2020 (Marketwatch.2020). As to the another lever of the Russian economy and political pressure - natural gas, it should be mentioned that as a result of COVID 19 spreading, the Russian energy giant Gazprom announced about decreasing the demand for natural gas and a sharp reduction in gas exports. The company estimates that the decline within 2020 will be about 16.4%. Alexander Ivannikov, director of Gazprom's finance and economic department, said.
He said natural gas prices from Russia to foreign consumers would be further reduced, from $ 210.6 per 1,000 cubic meters to $ 133, or by 37 percent (Lenta. Ru. 2020).
Furthermore, Russia has overtaken China in terms of the number of illnesses. In particular, as of May 4, the number of people infected with the virus in Russia was 145,268 (82880 in China), and the death number was 1,356 people (Wordometers, 2020).
At the same time, no other country can be interested in the spread of coronavirus and in the global economic crisis, given the fact that the according to the World Bank estimations, world economy within 2020 will be reduced by about 3%, which will create a problem for each country in our planet (Chitadze, 2020).
Coronavirus and existing biological laboratories in the world
Many analysts rule out any rumor about artificial emergence of COVID 19, saying that various laboratories for biological or medical purposes operate in different parts of the world, and if we develop a conspiracy theory, then we can bring the example of Lugar's laboratory in Georgia. This case is given because within the propaganda policy of Russia, official Kremlin has often accused the United States, that after the opening of Lugar Laboratory in Georgia, with the support of the US government - different types of experiments on humans have been implemented.
The lab was named in honor of American Senator Richard Lugar. After the Kremlin's propaganda, it turned out that Lugar's laboratory was indispensable in conducting various scientific research. Even at this stage, Lugar's laboratory turned out to be the only surviving facility that promptly allowed Georgian doctors to prevent Coronavirus from developing an epidemiological psychosis. As a result, Lugar's lab is a real tool that has, to some extent, localized the pandemic virus.
In addition, many experts believe that it is the Wuhan laboratory mentioned above that has played an important role in stopping the virus in China and in general has prevented more serious negative consequences. At present, the problem of coronavirus in the Wuhan province has been localized. The scalea of the virus spreading are declining, thus, talking about biological theories is not true. This is a classic information propaganda war waged primarily by the official Kremlin, claiming that the virus, and various diseases, are biological weapons of Washington.
World-renowned pandemics - Black Death, plague, Swine Flu, AIDS, etc.
The natural and not artificial origin of Coronavirus can be confirmed by the fact that at different times in the world history, the origin and spread of various epidemics or pandemics in different regions of the planet have occurred many times. However, among the diseases listed below, none of the artificial origins of those viruses have been confirmed.
Perhaps the most horrific epidemics in history, or rather pandemics that have caused great harm to the world’s population, have been linked with the plague. Several pandemics of this terrible disease are known to us.
Noteworthy is the fact that information about various diseases can be found in ancient Egyptian manuscripts.
However, the first pandemic in which relatively more specific clues have been found is known as the "Athens plague." According to various ancient Greek sources, the plague spread on the modern territory of Ethiopia and via Northern Africa, particularly Egypt has reached the Greece. As a result, in 430, the plague killed about 25-30% of the Athenian population during the period, when this city-state was involved in the Peloponnese Wars (Histoire Géo,2020).
In 165 CE, on the territory of Roman empire the new pandemic, with the name "Antonius' Illness" was emerged. According to various reports, the virus entered to the Apennines Peninsula from Mesopotamia. The pandemic claimed the lives of about 5 million people, in a situation when the world's population at that time was just over 200 million (Histoire Géo,2020).
Later, a new, so-called The "plague of Justinian" appeared, which within the 40-th of the VI century began to be spread in the different regions of the world from Central Asia (by other sources from Egypt) and in 541 reached the Byzantine capital of Constantinople. The plague was most likely spread from rats and micro-fleas. It has claimed the lives of about 30 million to 100 million people over two centuries. In other words, the cause of the epidemic was the plague, which later became known as the "Black Death" pandemic (Histoire Géo,2020).
The second pandemic caused the deaths of the millions of people in Europe during the 14th century. The disease spread from Asia and spread from rodents in all European port cities. In addition to the European Continent, the plague has inflicted huge losses to China, with up to 90 percent of its population lost in some provinces. Several factors contributed to the emergence and spread of the plague: the wars that engulfed Europe (the movement of large armies), the rapid development of trade, the general situation in sanitation, and the climatic factor. The problems with Global glaciation weakened the immunity of the population, especially in Europe.
Outbreaks appear to be exacerbated in Europe by the outbreak of chickenpox and pelagic fever. The place of origin of the "black death" was the Gobi Desert - animals (mostly rodents) that lived in this area, found to be closer to humans who were fleeing from hunger and drought. Traders who followed the Silk Road, were transporting various goods to the Asian cities, which later led to the deaths of millions of people. There was no cure for the plague then. Infection with "black death" meant that a person would die in a few days. The symptoms were several: in the case of a bubonic plague, the disease-causing human body was exposed to a flea bite. Those fleas were located on the body of the rats.
As a result, If there were about 80 million people living in Europe in the early fourteenth century, by 1360 there were about 50,000,000 left. Outbreaks appear to be exacerbated in Europe by 200-300 years after the outbreak of the epidemic.
The third plague began in China in the mid-nineteenth century. It has once again spread around the world by merchant ships, especially in port cities and coastal areas. It was at the end of the 19th century that scientists discovered the cause of the plague. More than 10,000,000 people only in Asia have died since the last pandemic.
Another disease that has caused the panic all of humanity is known as chickenpox pandemic. Infectious disease has killed tens of thousands of people in a year and half. Only in 1980 the World Health Organization declared that the disease could be eradicated worldwide with the help of vaccination. The average mortality rate was 40%. The chickenpox epidemic was registered in China in the 4th century, and a little later in the 7th century in India, Korea and Japan. In the latter case, it destroyed a third of the country's population (Khutsishvili, 2020).
In the modern era, it is difficult to find a European, especially in large cities, who was not infected by the chickenpox. In the 18th century, 1.5 million people died every year in Europe from this decease. Chickenpox is transmitted by airborne droplets. Cases of skin transmission have also been reported. The first symptoms are: fever, muscle and limb pain, vomiting, headache, dizziness.
Cholera - Acute intestinal infection has long been spread in Asia, Africa and South America, and it reached the Europe in the 19th century. By the beginning of the last century, seven cholera pandemics had been recorded, most recently in 1961-1975. Cholera was mainly transmitted by water, and the water was contaminated with the feces of the infected people. Unsanitary conditions were a major cause of cholera. Rapid dehydration often led to the death. Cholera has claimed the lives of tens of millions of people since the 1800's.
Typhoid become a real disaster during the World War I Europe. There were several types of this disease: skin, abdominal, and reversible. It raged in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Known since the time of Hippocrates, this disease appeared mainly during the wars. Infections that transmit the decease can easily spread to the fighters. Typhoid killed 2 million people during the Civil War in Russia (Intermedia, 2020). The disease begins with itching, fever, backache, and headache. Slowly pink spots appear on the abdomen. People start dreaming, losing the sense of time and space. Half of the patients with typhoid died. There is currently an antidote to typhoid fever, so the probability of death is significantly lower, even in severe cases.
Malaria is another disease that has killed millions of people over the centuries. About 2-3 million people die from malaria each year. This disease, which is characteristic for tropical and subtropical regions, has historically been known in Europe. In the Roman Empire it was called "Roman fever". The disease is transmitted by mosquitoes, but it is also possible to transmit by blood from person to person.
Influenza - The emergence of many mutations in this disease has sowed panic in the recent decades. The reason for this panic really exists. The Spanish flu ("Ispanka") struck a millions of people between 1918 and 1919, infecting 550 million people and killing more than 25 million. The Spanish flu pandemic has been recorded as one of the greatest tragedies in human history. This time too, the war became the main cause of the spread of the disease, particulalrly the First World War and the series of military conflicts that followed. The name of the disease is related to the place from which the terrible disease began to go around the world. According to the second version, Spain was not the place where this virus was born, although it was the country that first experienced this catastrophe (Intermedia, 2020).
In the first six months, Ispanka has killed more than 10 million people worldwide. Technological development of vehicles has allowed the virus to reach all the settlements around the planet. The main symptoms of the disease are: pneumonia, bloody cough, as well as the characteristic blue tint of the skin, cyanosis - an excessive accumulation of carbon dioxide, which in turn causes hypoxemia - lack of oxygen in the blood.
In the early 1980s, the world faced with a new global problem. In 1981, a strange disease appeared, which caused a complete loss of immunity, and thus, any illness could become fatal for a sick person. The disease became known as AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). According to one version, monkeys - inhabited in tropical Africa were the main source of virus infection. Consequently, AIDS has spread as a result of the bites of monkeys, particularly chimpanzees. This hypothesis is supported by an American researcher B. Corbett.
In 2006, the total number of AIDS deaths was 2.9 million, and by January 2007, the total number of AIDS carriers in the world was 39.6 million people (Davitashvili, Elizbarashvili, 2012).
The Influenza H1N1, which killed a million people in the first quarter of the 20th century, revived in a new form in 2009 and became known as the "swine flu." In fact, it was a subtype of the Spanish flu, and the source was an infected pig. For this illness is characterized the symptoms of the common flu - cough, fever, vomiting, diarrhea. Approximately 250,000 cases of the infection have been reported in 140 countries, killing up to 3,000 people. The mass-media means in the past, as well as today, began to escalate the situation, predicting what the second "Ispanka" would be emerged. Nevertheless, the standards of medicine and health are more or less different from those of the previous century, and the absence of global military conflicts has reduced the risks of high lethality and spread of the disease to minimum. It was later revealed that the governments of various states had squandered huge sums of money on the purchase of medicines and vaccines that had never been used for their intended purpose (Intermedia, 2020).
The same story was repeated in 2013, in the case of the H7N9 flu virus, better known as the “bird flu”. The first case of human infection was reported in China. The main symptom again and again was pneumonia. 450 cases were registered, 175 of them lethal. Fortunately, the pandemic did not occur.
The last viral challenge of the century was the Ebola fever. It was first observed in South Sudan in 1976, but became widely known in 2014, when an epidemic crossed the boundaries of West Africa and invaded in the United States and Europe. The virus is transmitted through the body fluids of an infected person or animal, such as blood (Chitadze, 2020).
The disease is characterized by a feeling of weakness, severe pain in the head and muscles, diarrhea. Later symptoms include coughing, nausea, and dehydration. With some patients develops a hemorrhagic rash. If treatment is not started in time, internal and external bleeding begins. Within the second week of illness, the patient dies. In 2015, Ebola infected 30,000 people, nearly half of whom died. In this case, too, the media predicted the inevitability of the apocalypse of mankind, and again, their prophecy did not come true. Of course, the modern media industry makes money in similar panic news or stories. People are attracted to excitement, and journalists very often love exaggeration.
Humanity is constantly threatened by many viral diseases, but some media means are not bothered by this. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle and taking sanitary measures is enough to protect yourself from the types of flu that spread to the Far East or the South. Otherwise, it seems, humanity will not get sick until some journalists or so-called experts find out about new flu mutations and start sowing panic, which, in itself, serves in no way to eliminate the causes of the problem.
The World Health Organization has named the probable source of COVID 19
The official statement made by the World Health Organization (WHO) confirms the evidence of the natural origin of coronavirus. In particular, the official representative (spokesman) of the World Health Organization, Fadella Chaib, said at the briefing that the source of COVID-19 is still unknown, but it is likely that it has been transmitted by the mediation of the bats.
"All available evidence suggests the virus has an animal origin and is not manipulated or constructed in a lab or somewhere else" mentioned WHO spokeswoman (Reuters, 2020).
Later she added: "most likely is that its ecological reservoir is bats. However, it is necessary to determine how the virus moved from bats to humans. It is obvious that there is a mediator that transmitted the disease to humans."
"At this moment we know nothing about the origin of the virus. We need to focus on facts and not on theories. The World Health Organization is a scientific organization and we suggest that the virus is of animal origin," said a World Health Organization`s spokesman.
Chaib noted that the 70% of new viruses, including Ebola, plague and coronavirus, are of animal origin (Reuters, 2020).
The statement was made in response to an earlier statement of French virologist Luke Montagne, a Nobel Prize-winning. His position has already been mentioned in the beginning of the article.
In an interview with the website of the California Institute of Technology, another Nobel laureate, David Baltimore, shared with his opinion. The professor believes that biologically HIV and SARS-CoV-2 are completely different from each other and belong to different families of viruses.
The opinion of the World Health Organization is shared by Australian experts, who believe that the new type of coronavirus could not be created artificially.
"At the moment we know nothing about the origin of the virus. We need to focus on facts, not theories. The World Health Organization is a scientific organization and we suggest that the virus is of animal origin," said a World Health Organization spokesman.
Chaib noted that 70% of new viruses, including Ebola, plague, and coronavirus, are of animal origin.
The statement was made in response to an earlier statement that "there has been a backlash from French virologist Luke Montagne, a Nobel Prize-winning French virologist, about the fact that COVID-19 was created in the laboratory and added to it."
In an interview with the website of the California Institute of Technology, another Nobel laureate, David Baltimore, shared his opinion. The professor believes that biologically HIV and SARS-CoV-2 are completely different from each other and belong to different families of viruses (Interpressnews, 2020).
The opinion of the World Health Organization is shared by Australian experts, who believe that the new type of coronavirus could not be created artificially.
At the same time, scientists have discovered the first significant mutation in coronavirus.
Anthony Fauch, head of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in the United States, later said the best evidence was that the coronavirus had not been created in a Chinese laboratory.
"If we look at the evolution of the virus in bats, the scientific evidence is very, very strong that it could not be artificially created or deliberately manipulated. If we observe the evolution of the virus within the concrete period of time, we will find the a strong determinant that the virus has emerged naturally and then moved to to other species, ”Fauch said in a statement (Interpressnews, 2020).
Based on the above, based on the majority of specialists, the most solid theory at this stage is the fact that coronavirus is a virus transmitted from bats, because as a result of deciphering the genetic sequence, this virus is closest to the virus found in bats, where the similarity is up to 99%. The coronavirus circulates around us, meaning it is not a virus that is completely new.
In addition to that, it is very interesting to note the fact that there are certain old traditions in China, according to which a strange habit is spread among the poor population of China in the form of a kind of folk medicine. When a person is ill, has the flu or another illness, he or she is often offered to eat the meat of the snake. Most likely, it was this tradition and the consumption of bats that most probably led to the spread of the virus. That is, it can be said that a biological mutation has taken place. One of the sick people ate bat meat. It is quite real that the virus mutated in one human body and spread to other humans.
It is important to note that the international community is very often under the influence of some scientists or experts, also information propaganda of several states, especially the countries with authoritarian regimes. Main purpose of some specialists is - to make some scandal statements and by this way to attract the attention of the population of one concrete country or whole international community. The purpose of some states, is to conduct the information policy with the purpose of discreditation in the international authority of its geopolitical or ideological rival etc.
Thus, it can be assumed, that the romours about artificial spreading the COVID 19 represents the result of such type of propaganda having been offered by individual or the state actors.
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